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(c. 170-c. 236). Theologian of the Roman Church, presbyter, antipope, and martyr. Hippolytus strongly resisted Popes Zephyrinus, Callistus, Urban, and Pontianus. Hippolytus was zealous for orthodoxy and a rigorist concerning penitential discipline. He wanted a church of the pure. He accused Callistus of heresy and laxity. Hippolytus was apparently made antipope of a schismatic Christian community in Rome when Callistus was Pope. Hippolytus's schism continued under Callistus's successors Urban and Pontianus. Hippolytus and Pontianus were both exiled to Sardinia during the persecution of Emperor Maximinus Thrax. Hippolytus and Pontianus apparently reconciled before they died. Pope Fabian brought both bodies back to Rome for burial on the same day, Aug. 13. Although Hippolytus is not included in the Episcopal calendar of the church year, his feast day has traditionally been celebrated on Aug. 13 in the western church and on Jan. 30 in the eastern church. Hippolytus has been described as the most important third-century Roman theologian. He was the last significant Roman theologian to write in Greek. He wrote at a time when Greek was not generally understood by the Christian community in Rome. His Philosophumena, or Refutation of all Heresies, was recovered and published in 1851. Hippolytus believed that all heresies were derived from ancient philosophies. Hippolytus wrote exegetical treatises and the Commentary on Daniel. One of Hippolytus's best known works is the Apostolic Tradition. It was written about 215 in Rome. It was one of the earliest church orders, which provided norms for church life including the liturgy. The Apostolic Tradition has detailed information concerning the rites and practices of the church in Rome in the early third century, including descriptions of Baptism, Eucharist, and the Easter Vigil. Hippolytus's Apostolic Tradition continues to be highly valued and influential in contemporary liturgical studies. It is frequently cited in Marion J. Hatchett's Commentary on the American Prayer Book (1980). See Church Orders. 

Glossary definitions provided courtesy of Church Publishing Incorporated, New York, NY,(All Rights reserved) from "An Episcopal Dictionary of the Church, A User Friendly Reference for Episcopalians," Don S. Armentrout and Robert Boak Slocum, editors.
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