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Newman, John Henry  

(Feb. 21, 1801-Aug. 11, 1890). One of the original leaders of the Oxford Movement in the nineteenth-century Church of England and subsequently a convert to Roman Catholicism. He entered Trinity College, Oxford, in June 1817 and received a B.A. in 1820. Newman became a fellow of Oriel College in 1822. He was ordained deacon in 1824 and priest in 1825. He began his ministry in 1825 as vice-principal of Alban Hall, and became vicar of St. Mary's, Oxford, in 1828. Newman wrote 24 of the Tracts for the Times, including Tract 90 (1841). In Tract 90 he attempted to reconcile the Thirty-Nine Articles with the teachings of the Council of Trent. He resigned as vicar of St. Mary's on Sept. 18, 1843. His growing doubts about the Church of England led to his becoming a Roman Catholic on Oct. 9, 1845. Pope Leo XIII made him a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church in 1879. Newman has been recognized as a major theological figure, especially in the latter part of the twentieth century. His Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine, written shortly after he became a Roman Catholic, and Apologia pro Vita Sua (1864) set forth his reasons for becoming a Roman Catholic. Newman's Grammar of Assent (1870) developed his theological thought about religious belief. His text "Praise to the Holiest in the height" appears as Hymns 445-446 in The Hymnal 1982. The Hymnal (1940) also included his text "Lead, kindly Light, amid the encircling gloom." He died in Rednal, near Birmingham, England. See Oxford Movement, The. 

Glossary definitions provided courtesy of Church Publishing Incorporated, New York, NY,(All Rights reserved) from "An Episcopal Dictionary of the Church, A User Friendly Reference for Episcopalians," Don S. Armentrout and Robert Boak Slocum, editors.
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