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Investiture Struggle 

Controversy in the latter part of the eleventh century and the early decades of the twelfth century between spiritual and temporal authorities over the installation of bishops. Feudal practice allowed kings to install bishops. In some places this led to disappointing and even scandalous appointments. This practice was challenged by Pope Gregory VII (c. 1021-1085) as a usurpation of the church's authority. Gregory's struggle with the German King Henry IV eventually led to Gregory's excommunication of Henry in 1076 and Henry's submission to the Pope at Canossa in 1077. Henry subsequently set up an antipope after a siege of Rome. Gregory was forced to escape from Rome and died in exile. However, Gregory's effort to free the church from feudal control eventually was followed by the Concordat of Worms (1122), which represented a workable compromise between ecclesiastical and feudal interests. 

Glossary definitions provided courtesy of Church Publishing Incorporated, New York, NY,(All Rights reserved) from "An Episcopal Dictionary of the Church, A User Friendly Reference for Episcopalians," Don S. Armentrout and Robert Boak Slocum, editors.
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