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Liturgical Movement, The 

The liturgical movement originated in the Roman Catholic Church, especially in the Benedictine Order. In 1833 the ancient monastery at Solesmes, France, was re-established under the leadership of Dom Prosper Guéranger (1805-1875). The Benedictine community at Solesmes became a major center for research concerning chant in the 1870s. This community founded or influenced many Benedictine foundations during the period from 1833 to 1900. The Benedictine or monastic phase of the liturgical movement was followed by further research and scholarship concerning Christian liturgy. Liturgical scholarship concerned important documents such as the Didache (discovered in 1875 and published in 1883), and the publication of other sources such as the Canons of Hippolytus and the Apostolic Constitutions. Scholars came to approach liturgy in light of historical critical methods. The popular liturgical movement has been dated from an address by Dom Lambert Beauduin (1873-1960) at the National Congress of Catholic Action at Malines, Belgium, in 1909. Beauduin's address, "The Full Prayer of the Church," called for the active participation of the people in the church's work, especially in the liturgy. Beauduin's approach was based in parochial ministry, and it expressed theoretical concepts in popular language. The popular liturgical movement was advanced through publications, conferences, and the media. An important aspect of the liturgical movement was its intentional drawing together of the liturgy and the social issues facing the church's people. The popular liturgical movement in America has been dated from the travels and work of Dom Virgil Michel (1890-1938), a monk of St. John's Abbey, Collegeville, Minnesota, who visited Benedictine monasteries and Beauduin in Europe, 1924-1925. After Michel returned, the American liturgical movement began at St. John's with the founding of Orate Fratres (which later became Worship) and the Liturgical Press under Michel's leadership. In the Roman Catholic Church, the liturgical movement culminated in the reforms of the Second Vatican Council's Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy (1963). The liturgical movement spread beyond the Roman Catholic Church and led to the reform of the books and forms of worship of many churches during the later twentieth century, including the Anglican Communion and the Episcopal Church. 

Glossary definitions provided courtesy of Church Publishing Incorporated, New York, NY,(All Rights reserved) from "An Episcopal Dictionary of the Church, A User Friendly Reference for Episcopalians," Don S. Armentrout and Robert Boak Slocum, editors.
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