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Oxford Movement, The 

Keble, Pusey, Newman, and others began to publish a series known as Tracts for the Times, which called the Church of England to return to the ways of the ancient and undivided church in matters of doctrine, liturgy and devotion. The Tracts were a powerful and influential expression of the principles of the Oxford Movement, and the Oxford Movement has also been known as the Tractarian Movement. The writers of the Tracts and their supporters have been known as Tractarians. The Tracts were strongly opposed to the abuses which they saw in the Roman Catholic Church, but they were attacked as "papist" and rejected by many. However, many others were convinced by the Tracts, and the Oxford Movement became a major force in the Church of England. The leaders of the Oxford Movement taught that the Church of England and the larger Anglican Communion are part of the one, holy, catholic, and apostolic church. The last Tract was Newman's Tract 90(1841), which generally sought to interpret the Thirty-Nine Articles as consistent with the decrees of the Roman Catholic Council of Trent (1545-1563). This prompted considerable criticism and ended the publication of Tracts. The movement faced a crisis when Newman and others subsequently left the Church of England to become Roman Catholics. The Oxford Movement survived this crisis through the work of Pusey, Keble, Robert Wilberforce, and a second generation of priests, known as the ritualists, who worked among the poor in the large cities of Britain. 

Glossary definitions provided courtesy of Church Publishing Incorporated, New York, NY,(All Rights reserved) from "An Episcopal Dictionary of the Church, A User Friendly Reference for Episcopalians," Don S. Armentrout and Robert Boak Slocum, editors.
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