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The Protestant schism came in the sixteenth century. Martin Luther (1483-1546) was a professor in the faculty of theology at the University of Wittenberg and vicar of the Augustinian order. On Oct. 31, 1517, Luther challenged the sale and abuse of indulgences by posting his Ninety-Five Theses on the door of the castle church at Wittenberg. Luther denied the primacy of the Pope and the infallibility of general councils in 1519 at the Leipzig Disputation. In 1520 Luther urged the civil rulers to reform the church. The Roman Catholic Church excommunicated Luther and condemned his teachings in 1521. After Luther's condemnation by the Diet of Worms (1521), the Elector of Saxony protected Luther at Wartburg castle. Luther translated the NT into German while he was at Wartburg. The Diet of Speyer of 1526 granted princes the right to organize national churches. Lutheranism spread through many parts of Germany and Scandinavia. In the sixteenth century, "Protestant" meant Lutheran. 

Glossary definitions provided courtesy of Church Publishing Incorporated, New York, NY,(All Rights reserved) from "An Episcopal Dictionary of the Church, A User Friendly Reference for Episcopalians," Don S. Armentrout and Robert Boak Slocum, editors.
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