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Protestantism 

Calvin published the first edition of his Institutes of the Christian Religion in 1536. The last edition of the Institutes was published in 1559. His teaching emphasized the sovereignty of God, scripture as the supreme rule of faith and life, the total depravity of humanity after the Fall, the predestination of the elect to salvation and the reprobate to damnation, and the importance of the church as an ordered and disciplined community. The ministers or officers of the Reformed Church included pastors, teachers, elders, and deacons. The Dutch Reformed theologian Jacob Arminius (1560-1609) sought to moderate Calvinist teaching concerning predestination and the importance of free human will relative to divine sovereignty. The Synod of Dort (1618-1619) of the Dutch Reformed Church responded to Arminianism by upholding strict Calvinist principles concerning total depravity, unconditional election, limited atonement, irresistibility of grace, and the perseverance of the saints. The Reformed Church in Switzerland influenced the French Huguenots, the Scottish Church reforms of John Knox (c. 1513-1572), the Puritans in England, and the reformed churches in the Netherlands. Calvin's influence is seen in the American Reformed, Congregational, and Presbyterian churches. 




Glossary definitions provided courtesy of Church Publishing Incorporated, New York, NY,(All Rights reserved) from "An Episcopal Dictionary of the Church, A User Friendly Reference for Episcopalians," Don S. Armentrout and Robert Boak Slocum, editors.
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