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James DeKoven was a distinguished defender of ritual practices and a strong advocate for ritualism at the 1871 and 1874 General Conventions. At the 1871 General Convention, he argued that ritual practices do not symbolize the doctrine of transubstantiation. He noted that such practices preceded the doctrine of transubstantiation. These practices were shared by Orthodox and Lutheran churches that denied transubstantiation. At the 1874 General Convention, DeKoven urged the church to adopt a comprehensive approach to worship. The canon on ritual was passed despite DeKoven's plea for comprehensiveness. His defense of ritualism led his opponents to question his theology of the eucharist and block his election as Bishop of Illinois. However, DeKoven's vision of comprehensiveness in worship ultimately prevailed in the Episcopal Church. His life and ministry are commemorated on Mar. 22 in the Episcopal calendar of the church year. Many of the ritualist practices and actions that were controversial in the nineteenth century are now generally accepted. See DeKoven, James; see Oxford Movement; see Transubstantiation. 

Glossary definitions provided courtesy of Church Publishing Incorporated, New York, NY,(All Rights reserved) from "An Episcopal Dictionary of the Church, A User Friendly Reference for Episcopalians," Don S. Armentrout and Robert Boak Slocum, editors.
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